Two weeks later came an even more forthright outburst.

The letter to Reuters is dated 20 Could, 1939, Reuters archives, London. I want to thank- the administrators and employees of Reuters for permission to make use of this file and for his or her assist in making it avai, lable to me.

Swire to Otto Theiss, 13 Could 1938. B3/eight. Swire’s letters have been organized in quite a few information, to which I’ve given the designations equivalent to B3, VI, and so forth.

I’ve simply acquired again from Granollers. I suppose that if, 5 years therefore, I write in a e-book that on this sunny 31st of Could Franco’s bombers massacred ladies and kids by the rating in a wholly defenceless city I shall — by your reckoning — expose myself and my writer to a libel motion. What I’ve mentioned in Bulgarian Conspiracy is FACT — and I personally am ready to face any courtroom to show it . . . THE BOOK MUST BE PUBLISHED WITHOUT MORE DELAY.

You’ll forgive me, I do know, if the foregoing paragraphs are bluntly phrased; however this isn’t fully a picnic right here                and this hitch about Bulgarian Conspiracy drives me to exaspera tion in my current state. I’ve written details which everyone within the Balkans is aware of to be true —and there are 1000’s prepared, even longing, for the prospect to return ahead in open courtroom to show that they’re true.

Swire’s confidence within the correctness of his views and the diploma of help which they commanded within the Balkans was very a lot the results of the sympathy and goodwill which was proven to him on the time of his conflict with the Bulgarian authorities. The Vienna correspondent of the Every day Specific, for instance, wrote that he ‘was sorry to listen to that the gangsters who run Bulgaria had compelled you in another country.’eight Way more vital to Swire was the sympathy and help he had obtained inside Bulgaria. Simply earlier than his expulsion Swire returned from Athens, his aircraft being compelled by dangerous climate to divert to Belgrade. Within the practice which introduced him on from Belgrade to Sofia he was advised by a Velchevite whom he met by likelihood that he was thought of the perfect reporter in Bulgaria.9 Extra dramatic was the story recounted by Swire when he wrote to Rickartson-Hattjustifyinghisjournalistis exercise in Bulgaria.

Finding out Bulgarian

I feel that should you had had the alternatives that I’ve had of learning Bulgarian intrigue at first hand, you’d have taken a stronger line (with) the Bulgarian authorities. Briefly, I consider the foundation of the entire bother is that I’ve been making ready a historical past of Bulgarian conspiracy . . . and the authorities, conscious of this, are afraid of the revelations which, inevitably, such a e-book will comprise. My despatches have been all precisely primarily based upon the information which I’ve acquired via my research. After I let you know former Minister, who was twice thrown out of energy by “my pal” Damian Veltcheff wept on the street once I advised him I used to be leaving, and once I let you know former chief censor, very, visibly moved, exclaimed: “My God! Why are you going now, after we want you so? You’re the solely overseas correspondent who writes the reality fearlessly”, you will note that there’s one other facet to the query.



Third of Stambours seven hills

On the third of Stambours seven hills stands the Mosque of Suleiman the Magnificent, all superb with out, as Santa Sophia isn’t, however disappointing inside, regardless of its lovely home windows of jeweled glass from Persia, and the plaques of fantastic tiles which cowl the wall on both facet of the mihrab. Somber and darkish, earth-colored and grey, dark- inexperienced and gold, it has a poorly painted cupola and far plastered stone which is ugly. However there’s fascination in its outdated dimness, in its silence and desertion. Greater than as soon as I used to be fairly alone inside it, and was ready undisturbed to note its chief inner magnificence, the beautiful proportions which trick you at first into believing it to be a lot smaller than it’s.

When seen from with out it appears colossal. It’s splendid and imposing, however it’s far more, for it has a curiously incredible, and certainly virtually whimsical appeal, as if its builder, Sinan, had been a playful genius, filled with gaiety and enthusiasm of spirit, who made this nice mosque with pleasure and with lightness of coronary heart, however who by no means forgot for a second his science, and who couldn’t be vulgar even in his most animated moments of invention. Massiveness and style are blended collectively on this lovely exterior. Around the central dome multitudes of small domes—ethereal bubbles thrown up on the floor of the mosque—are grouped with pleasant fantasy. 4 minarets, the 2 farthest from the mosque smaller than their brethren, soar above the bushes. They’re grey, and the partitions of the mosque are grey and white. Within the forecourt there’s a fantastic fountain coated with a cupola; the roof of the cloisters which encompass it’s damaged up into twenty-four little domes. A backyard lies behind the mosque, and the nice outer courtroom is planted with bushes.

Suleiman the Magnificent and of Roxalana

Within the backyard are the turbehs, or tombs, of Suleiman the Magnificent and of Roxalana, “the joyous one,” that unusual captive from Russia, who by her appeal and the ability of her temperament subdued a nation’s ruler, who shared the throne of the sultan, who guided his toes within the methods of crime, and who to the day of her dying was adored by him. For Roxalana’s sake, Suleiman murdered his eldest son by one other spouse, and crept out from behind a curtain to look upon him useless; and for Roxalana’s sake that son’s son was stabbed to dying in his mom’s arms. Now the deadly lady sleeps in an excellent octagonal marble tomb close to the tomb of her lord and slave.

Wild smiling

They look wild and smiling

They appear wild and smiling, artful somewhat than ferocious; and so they greet you with loud cries in an unknown tongue, and with gestures expressive of the perpetual want to obtain which appears inherent in all true vagabonds. They pitch their tents normally on the outskirts of the villages, staying for clays or weeks, because the luck serves them. And, as far as I might choose, folks obtain them with good nature, maybe grateful for the thrill they create into lives that know little variation as season follows season and yr glides into yr. Simply exterior Thebes I discovered eleven of their tents set upon some tough floor, the beasts tethered, the canines on guard, the infants toddling and sprawling, whereas their moms had been cooking some mysterious compound, and the lads had been away maybe on some nefarious errand among the many excited Thebans. For that day Greek officers had been visiting the city, and in entrance of the cafe, among the many timber, and above the waterside, the place we stopped to lunch, there was a parade of horses, mules, and donkeys from all of the neighborhood. Struggle was taking its toll of the live-stock, and the entire inhabitants was overseas to see the enjoyable.

As quickly as I had descended from the automobile and begun to unpack my provisions, an aged man got here up, requested whether or not we had been from Athens, after which put the query that’s eternally on the lips of the Greek, “What’s the information?” Each Greek has a ardour for the most recent information. Usually, after I was touring by means of the nation, folks I handed on the best way referred to as out to me, “What’s the information?” or, “Are you able to give us a newspaper?”

Hercules was born

Thebes, the place, based on legend, Hercules was born; the place the stones gathered themselves collectively when Amphion struck his lyre; the place blind Tiresias prophesied; and, seated upon a block of stone, the Sphinx requested her riddle of the passers-by and slew them; the place Cedipus dominated and suffered his hideous destiny; the place the Epigoni took their vengeance; and Epaminondas confirmed how one man can elevate a metropolis and set it on a throne above all of the cities of its fatherland—Thebes, the place letters had been first introduced into use among the many Greeks, and the place weak-voiced Demosthenes by his eloquence persuaded the folks to march to their wonderful loss of life towards Philip of Macedon, is now only a busy village on the flank of a hill. Steadily devastated by earthquakes, that are the scourge of this area, it appears to be like newly constructed, pretty clear and neat.

Macedonian terrorism

The suppression of Macedonian terrorism

The suppression of Macedonian terrorism would result in higher relations with Yugoslavia and, due to this fact, make for stability within the Balkans. Secure Balkans can be much less vulnerable to the blandishments and revisionist pressures of Rome and Berlin and would due to this fact additional British and western European pursuits. This was consistent with Velchev’s hopes as a result of, wrote Swire, ‘Velchev has at all times insisted that in international affairs Bulgaria must be guided by Nice Britain. . ,’14 Certainly in later letters and newspaper articles Swire was cautious to hyperlink the 1934 coup with international affairs. Typical of many such writings is a letter to the editor of The Manchester Guardian, written after the warfare.

On 17 Could 1934 the Prime Minister of the day, Moushanov, introduced that Goering was about to go to Sofia. On 19 Could a navy coup d’etat occurred, deliberate and directed by Colonel Damian Velchev . . . The coup was cold. There have been no executions, no arrests — save of some proved terrorist assassins. A wave of reduction swept the nation. And whereas this Authorities remained in energy, nothing extra was heard of Goering. . . However in 1935 Tsar Boris skilfully regained absolute energy — by dividing his opponents upon home points. . . . No sooner did Tsar Boris maintain the reins securely once more than Goering’s deferred go to to Sofia occurred — on 26 Could, 1935.15

Swire was satisfied that Velchev’s pacific coverage and his need for conciliation with Yugoslavia was in tune with the needs of the overwhelming majority of the Bulgarian nation. In an article revealed in The Close to East and India on 10 January, 1935 Swire had expanded extra totally on the connection between Velchev, the military and the individuals. The article was headed ‘A Pacifist Folksand commenced:

In some quarters grave doubts

Bulgaria at this time is pacifist. There might have been in some quarters grave doubts upon the topic whereas she was dominated by Macedonian terrorists and dominated by politicians who had been in no hazard, themselves, of being known as upon to make warfare. However behind the current regime stands the Military; and the Military in democratic Bulgaria, springs from the individuals, of whom 80 p.c are peasants. A lot of the officers come from humble properties and know the abject poverty of these properties. The plenty need peace — and an financial revival which can’t come by warfare. So pacifist they are going to stay . . .


The name of Byron carved in bold letters

Upon one of many columns I discovered the identify of Byron carved in daring letters. However I appeared in useless for the identify of Turner. Byron liked the Cape of Sunium. Fortuitously, nothing has been finished to make it much less fantastic since his time. It’s true that fewer columns are standing to bear witness to the previous worship of the sea-god; however such locations as Su- nium will not be injured when some blocks of marble fall, however when males start to construct. Nonetheless the noble promontory thrusts itself boldly ahead into the ocean from the guts of an undesecrated wilderness. Nonetheless the columns stand fairly alone. All of the sea- winds can come to you there, and all of the winds of the hills—winds from the FEgean and Mediterranean, from crested Euboea, from Melos, from Hydra, from /Egina, with its stunning Doric temple, from Argo- lis and from the mountains of Arcadia. And it appears as if all of the sunshine of heaven had been there to wash you in golden lire, as if there could possibly be none left over for the remainder of the world. The coasts of Greece stretch away beneath you into far distances, curving in bays, thrusting out in promontories, right here tawny and volcanic, there grey and quietly sober in colour, however by no means chilly or dreary. White sails, however solely two or three, are dreaming on the huge purple of Poseidon’s kingdom—white sails of mariners who’re certain for the isles of Greece. Poets have sung of these isles. Who has not considered them with emotion? Now, between the white marble columns, you’ll be able to see their mountain ranges, you’ll be able to see their rocky shores.

A snow-white goat warming

Behind and under me I heard a slight motion. I obtained up and appeared. And there on a slab of white marble lay a snow-white goat warming itself within the solar. White, gold, and blue, and much off the notes of white had been echoed not solely by the mariner’s sails, however by tiny Albanian villages inland, seen over miles of naked nation, over flushes of yellow, the place the pines wouldn’t be denied.

There may be an ineffable allure within the panorama, within the ambiance, of Greece. No different land that I do know possesses an precisely comparable spell. Wildness and calm appear woven collectively, a heat and nearly caressing wildness with a relaxed that is filled with romance. There the wilderness is certainly a haven to lengthy after, and there the solitudes name you as if with the voices of mates.


Swire supported was that represented by Velchev

The aspect of the query which Swire supported was that represented by Vel chev. The 2 had a lot in widespread. Swire, like many younger males within the 1930s was exasperated with current political and social situations in Europe however had not dedicated himself to any explicit political celebration or creed. His need to guard Europe and his personal nation from political gangsterism and terrorism led him to a deep mistrust of the fascist regimes of Rome and Berlin, and in addition led him to assist all parts which, he believed, would supply safety towards every other totalitarian power. He was satisfied that Velchev, together with his antipathy to the political institution in Sofia, to the intrigues of the Macedonian chauvinists, and to the machinations of German and Italian diplomacy, would finest additional the actual pursuits of Bulgaria and of nearly all of its individuals, and would finest defend the peace of the Balkans and of Europe. In a personal letter to the editor of The Day by day Herald Swire vigorously defended Velchev towards the cost of fascism. The letter, written in October 1935, arose from the truth that the newspaper, for the second time that 12 months, had sensationalised experiences from Swire and had given the impression that Britain might by no means assist somebody who, it maintained, was bent upon destroying political freedoms and parliamentarianism. The primary event on which this distortion of Swire’s reporting had taken place had been in January.

The perspective of the HERALD

Once I see you I’ll clarify simply how a lot hurt you probably did to the Liberal-Socialist trigger right here by publications final January. . . . The perspective of the HERALD is once more inflicting dismayed remark right here amongst Socialists, Agrarians and Moderates — it being mentioned that the HERALD’s perspective proves that Nice Britain is towards Velchev and helps the reactionaries. .. Implausible to you — sure; however one can not persuade individuals right here that it’s improbable. Maybe you argue that any man who suppresses a parliament have to be a Fascist; however there are Parliaments and Parliaments, and also you in all probability don’t realise the position performed by Mihailoff’s terrorists — it’s exhausting for anybody to understand it.If deputies, and even Ministers dare not converse for worry of being shot instantly they depart the Parliament, does that Parliament actually serve any helpful democratic goal?


Swire it was entirely understandable

For Swire it was entirely understandable that the army officer Velchev should be in tune with national feelings on military policy for, Swire believed, his hero represented popular aspirations of every sort. And, it must also be noted if a full record of Swire’s and Velchev’s views to be kept, Swire saw his friend as an important defence against the advance of Communism in Bulgaria, an advance which Swire, like so many of his generation, feared. He told the editor of The Daily Herald:

Velchev told me last year that he was not afraid of the Communists because he intended to introduce social legislation which would satisfy the masses, and then the real Communists, who are numerous, would be powerless.

In a letter to his father Swire described Velchev simply as ‘one of the few Bulgarians who puts the interests of the poor people before that of the “big business” interests’.17 And Swire was quite convinced that the people recognized Velchev’s concern for them, and gave him political support because of it. When Velchev was before the court in Sofia, Swire — then in Vienna en route back to Britain — wrote a memorandum on the significance of the trial then in progress.

The accused, who on 19 May, 1934 were hailed in Bulgaria as the liberators of the country from terror and sham democracy, are leaders of the movement for collaboration between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, whereas the forces behind the prosecution seem to stand for the old and dangerous order of things prevailing until two years ago. Thus, it is said, the whole future of Bulgaria, of the Balkans, and even of Europe, depends upon the outcome of the trial. The patience of the masses is becoming exhausted, and revolution and anarchy may be the consequence, it is thought, of any tendency to restore the old system. Meantime Velchev is hailed as a hero and martyr in all democratic and agrarian circles.18

Writing to the Foreign Editor of The Times

Two months later, in writing to the Foreign Editor of The Times, Swire again insisted that the Agrarian factions in Bulgaria were pro Velchev. He argued that Velchevs role in the events of 9 June, 1923 had been a Subordinate and even a moderating one for which the Agrarians were now grateful.

Contention Velchev

Swire allow the contention that Velchev

Nor would Swire enable the competition that Velchev, had sought to ascertain a army dictatorship; certainly he argued that Velchev had staged his coup in Might 1934 to forestall dictatorship and, a lot to his final drawback, wouldn’t thereafter enable the army to take full energy. Shortly after returning to London in 1936 Swire addressed to the Overseas Editor of The Occasions a protracted memorandum during which he tried to set out the background to Velchev’s profession. On this memorandum he said:

Lastly, there have been preparations by the Mihailovists and by Tsankoff’s Nationwide Socialist to grab energy, aided by their respective supporters within the Military. So Velchev forestalled them by seizing energy by cold coup on Might 19, 1934. A civil authorities was established, for Velchev, regardless of the insistence of the serving officers amongst his collaborators, dominated that the Military shouldn’t govern however ought to merely help the Authorities till fashionable help was organised. Velchev deplored using the armyhowever he argued that solely the Military may purge itself from components supporting the terrorists; and it was his want, as he instructed me in 1934, to get the Militaryagain to barracks”. However the Military wouldn’t go and ultimately overruled him, seizing energy from him in January 1935. In actual fact Velchev and Gheorghiev fell for opposing army authorities — as that they had opposed the federal government by terror of Volkov and his terrorist allies.

The terrorists to whom Swire referred have been these of the intense Macedonian faction inside BMORO. All through his work in Sofia Swire had been more and more afraid of the impact this group was having upon the on a regular basis lifetime of Bulgaria, of the menace it posed to the peace of the Balkans, and of the alternatives it provided to Italian and German diplomacy. It’s possible that it was Velchev’s dedication within the face of those risks which most endeared him to Swire, and there’s no doubt that Swire each believed in such risks and held Velchev answerable for overcoming them. Within the memorandum to the Overseas Editor of The Occasions quoted above he wrote:

The horrible Macedonian terrorist

The horrible Macedonian terrorist organisation had collapsed with out resistance instantly the Military was turned towards it; and its suppression, due totally to Velchev, undoubtedly saved Bulgaria from assault when King Alexander was assassinated. (On your non-public data M. Yevtich [Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia — RJC] himself assured me that if the terrorists had not been suppressed in Bulgaria by a Authorities in whose sincerity Yugoslavia believed, nothing would have restrained the Yugoslav Military from invading Bulgaria13).


Strolling among the puppets

In the future, after I was strolling among the many puppets of Saint Irene, some troopers adopted me spherical. They had been deeply fascinated by all that they noticed, and finally grew to become fascinated by me. Two or three of them addressed me in Turkish, which alas! I couldn’t perceive. I gathered, nonetheless, that they had been significantly explaining the puppets to me, and had been giving me details about the Janissaries, and Orchan, who was the founding father of that well-known corps. I responded in addition to I might with gestures, which appeared to fulfill them, for they stored shut beside me, and one, a huge fellow with pugnacious mustaches, often touched my arm, and as soon as even took me by the hand to attract my consideration to a gaggle which he specifically admired. All this was carried out with gravity and dignity, and with a childlike lack of self-consciousness. We parted glorious associates. I distributed cigarettes, which had been obtained with smiling gratitude, and went on my approach to Seraglio Level, realizing that there’s reality within the saying that each Turk is a gentleman.

Seraglio Level I discovered many extra troopers

Upon Seraglio Level I discovered many extra troopers, resting in teams by the sting of the ocean, upon the waste floor that lies on the foot of the partitions, past the pleasant deserted glades which might be left to run wild and to shelter the birds. If you happen to want to perceive one thing of the curious indifference that hangs, like moss, in regards to the Turk, go to Seraglio Level. There, nearly in Stamboul, is among the most fantastically located bits of land on the earth. Although actually a part of an awesome metropolis, a lot of it has not been constructed upon. Among the many bushes on the ridge, seeking to Marmora and Asia, to the Bosporus and the palaces, to the Golden Horn, Galata, and Pera, lie the numerous buildings and courts of the Outdated Seraglio, fairy-like of their wooden. The snowy cupolas, the minarets, and towers look ideally Japanese. They recommend romantic and careless lives, cradled in luxurious and ease. In that white imaginative and prescient one may dream away the times, watching from afar the pageant of the town and the seas, listening to from afar the faint voices of the nations, listening to unusual and monotonous music, toying with espresso and rose- leaf jam within the jewel-like Kiosk of Bagdad, and dreaming, at all times dreaming. There as soon as the Sultan dwelt within the Eski Serai, which exists not, and there was constructed the good Summer season Palace, which was inhabited by Suleiman I, and by his successors. Hidden within the Outdated Seraglio there are a lot of treasures, amongst them the magnificent Persian throne, which is roofed with gold and jewels. Past this uncared for wonder-world the woods lengthen towards the waters; hanging woods by the ocean—and the Turks care nothing about them. One might not wander via them; one might not sit in them; one might solely have a look at them, and lengthy to lose oneself of their darkness and silence, to fade of their secret recesses. The Turk leaves them alone, to rot or to flourish, as Allah and Nature will it.

Santa Sophia

Close to Santa Sophia in the Seraglio grounds

Near Santa Sophia within the Seraglio grounds is the previous Byzantine Church of Saint Irene, now painted an unpleasant pink, and utilized by the Turks as an armory and museum. It accommodates many spoils taken by the Turks in battle, that are fastidiously organized upon tables and partitions. Nothing is disdained, nothing is taken into account too paltry for exhibition. I noticed there flags riddled with bullets; however I noticed additionally odd boots taken from Italian troopers in Tripoli; caps, belts, water-bottles, blood-stained tunics and cloaks, saddles, weapons, and buttons. Amongst relics from Yildiz Kiosk was a set of furnishings which as soon as belonged to Abdul Hamid, and which he’s stated to have set a lot retailer by. It exhibits a really distinctive, certainly a considerably unique style, being manufactured from purple plush and weapons. The legs of the tables and chairs are weapons and revolvers. As I seemed on the chairs I couldn’t assist questioning whether or not ambassadors have been invited to take a seat in them, after that they had been loaded to their muzzles, or whether or not they have been reserved for topics whom the ex-Sultan suspected of treachery. Close to them have been a number of of Abdul Hamid’s favourite walking-sticks containing revolvers, a cane with an electrical gentle let into the knob, his inkstand, the mother-of-pearl revolver which was present in his pocket, and the handkerchief which fell from his hand when he was taken prisoner by the Younger Turks, who’ve since introduced their nation to break.

In a sequence of galleries

In a sequence of galleries, beneath arches and ceilings of yellow and white, stands, sits, reclines, and squats, in Japanese style, a wierd inhabitants of puppets, dressed within the costumes of the bygone centuries throughout which Turkey has dominated in Europe. These fearful ex-Christians, the Janissaries, who have been scourges of Christianity, look very gentle now as they stand fatuously collectively, not both Christian or Mussulman however fatally Madame Tussaud. As soon as they tucked up their coats to battle for the “Father” who had ravished them away from their fathers in blood. Now, even the depraved man, who flees when nobody pursueth, may scarcely worry them. Close to them the chief eunuch, a plump and piteous gentleman, reclines absurdly upon his divan, holding his massive black pipe, and obsequiously at-tended by a bearded dwarf in purple, and by a skinny aide-de-camp in inexperienced. The Sheikh-ul-Islam bends beneath the coiled dignity of his monstrous turban; a very lifelike previous man, with a curved grey beard and a inexperienced and white turban, reads the Koran perpetually; and troopers with faces manufactured from some sub-stance that appears like plaster return blankly the gaze of the various actual troopers who go to this curious present.