Silver City

However in describing the peculiarities of the nice Asiatic Cemetery, the “ Silver Metropolis” of Scutari, to which it’s so putting an appendage, should not he handed over with out discover. Its gleaming homes crowd the swish level of land which types the termination of the mountain-chain that shuts within the Asian aspect of the Bosphorus, after which falls hack solely to be bathed at its base by the broader and wilder waves of the Sea of Marmora.

Nothing can he imagined extra completely lovely than the place of the city of Scutari, because it sweeps spherical this swish level, and throws the lengthy shadows of its arrowy minarets far throughout the ripple of the Bosphorus in the direction of the European shore; after which, the place the rocky coast, on the base of which it’s set like a pearl, recedes earlier than the billows of the Propontis, is itself overshaded by the majestic Bulgurlhu Daghi, darkish and frowning, and standing out amid the clear blue of heaven in stern defiance, a mark for the storm and the. tempest; whereas because the sun-light falls upon the shimmering waters at its foot, in the direction of which the hanging gardens of the principal dwellings lovingly incline, clothes the rocky descent with fringes of changeful embroidery, its swish outlines are lengthened or widened in fairy circles because the fitful breeze performs over the floor of the glittering sea.

Clusters of homes are framed in by luxuriant foliage; imperial kiosques, painted in rainbow tints, give an air of midsummer gladness to its shores; verdure descends in wealthy plenty to the very lip of the 2 seas by which it’s laved ; and never an arrow’s flight from its quay stands the “ Maiden’s Tower,” a small and picturesque fort, constructed upon so diminutive a rock that its foundations cowl the entire floor, and provides to the edifice the looks of floating upon the waves.

Lofty tower and castellated partitions

This little fortress, with its lofty tower and castellated partitions, can also be the topic of a legend ; and thus it runs: A sure Sultan, whose identify is now forgotten, had a most truthful daughter, the one baby which had been vouchsafed to him by the Prophet, and on whom his coronary heart was anchored, as on his finest hope. Lovely as a Ilouri, swish as a Peri, and homosexual because the summer time wind when it sweeps over the rose-garden of Nishapor, the lady was rising into womanhood, when the anxious father consulted a celebrated astronomer on her future future; who, after having rigorously turned over the party-coloured pages of the mysterious of Smyrna; and there’s no island all through the Archipelago the place the pome-granate is richer or extra juicy.

Oranges, lemons, peaches, and the fragile golden apple, which resembles that of the West solely in kind, additionally abound ; and with a handful of piastres, the amused Frank, decided on a innocent experiment, could freight his caique with an providing which might do no discredit to Pomona herself.

 

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MUSICIANS AT TIIE ASIAN SWEET WATERS

Have been coming, we’re coming to gladden the throng, With laughter and legend, with music and tune;  Darkish eyes gleaming spherical us; gentle tones on the air: And the greetings of childhood to welcome us there ; A solar within the sky, and a breeze on the ocean, Oh ! shew us the minstrels extra glad than we!

A DESCRIPTION has already been given of the Asian Valley of Candy Waters ; of its majestic aircraft timber, its laughing river, and its scrumptious greensward; of the younger beauties who throng its recesses, the Sultanas who grace its drives; and the rosy kids who make its echoes vocal. Rut its musicians are a race aside, and the artist calls for for them and in fact they’re effectively worthy of it!

Not one of the sweetest

Their minstrelsy is not one of the sweetest; it requires not the ear of science to detect their discords, nor the style of the poet to smile at their absurdities; and but, it’s unattainable to not welcome them with smiles, for you understand that pleasure and laughter fellow of their practice : the calpae of the one, and the turban of the opposite, alike covers a shrewd and a busy mind. IIow a lot could also be instructed in a tune, or hinted in a stanza! Take a look at the group round them!

The matron is there, cautious and watchful, remembering the years of Her personal youth, and the evils by which she was then surrounded; and but beguiled by the “crafty minstrelsie” of the wandering bards into momentary forgetfulness of all save the allure of their prepared wit and easy seeming: the younger magnificence is beside her, veiled and draped with jealous care, it’s true, however with a coronary heart as heat, and a elaborate as buoyant, as if yashmacs and lattices have been unknown within the land of her start ; her pale cheek flushes, and her pulses quicken as she listens ; for to her the songs of the pilgrim-bards inform a deeper and a dearer story than to her placid grand’ dame ; whereas the attentive kids collect collectively in groupes, and gaze and hearken in mute and questioning admiration.

Many a wild legend do the minstrels chaunt, in a sluggish, drawling, monotonous tone, which may add however little to the allure of the subject-matter of their tune; whereas an occasional rasp of the grating tambourine, a fast rattling of its silver bells, and the hole sound emitted by the small Arab drums that are their common accompaniment, alone serve to alleviate the tedium of recitation. Nice, nevertheless, should be the lays which they pour forth ; for a lot of of their truthful auditors will stay umvcariedly for hours, listening and applauding with low-breathed “ Mashallahs!” and “Ajaibs!”* and with no single symptom of ennui.

 

City of the Sultan

I’ve mentioned little nearly nothing, of the inhabitants of the “ Metropolis of the Sultan;” not as a result of I couldn’t have mentioned a lot, very a lot, which could have gratified each them and myself, however as a result of the character of the current work didn’t admit of my doing so; and it’s only now, on the “eleventh hour,” that I allow myself to comment, that the courtesy, kindness, and friendship, which I universally skilled from the natives of the nation, and the veneration which I felt for his or her many virtues, tended vastly to endear to my coronary heart “ The Beauties of the Bosphorus.”

I free you from it. You aren’t to be taught That you’ve many enemies, that know not Why they’re so, however, wish to village curs,

Bark when their fellows do.”

At this disaster, when each the political and transition state of Turkey render it a topic of greater than normal significance to all who’re focused on Oriental affairs, a piece on the Bosphorus would he incomplete if wanting a file of essentially the most exceptional interval of its trendy historical past, in the course of the presence of the Russian expedition, which arrived upon its shores in February, 183o; and this I’m thankfully enabled to present by the kindness of a diplomatic pal who was resident at Constantinople on the time, and who obligingly furnished me with the very fascinating particulars.

The supply of Russian help

It was recognized that the Sultan had accepted the supply of Russian help, after having in useless utilized to France and England within the extremity to which he was pushed by Mehcmet Ali. However the design had been decidedly disapproved of in a grand council of his individuals and ministers, summoned to take it into consideration : “ Have been it the English, they could bid them welcome; hut to ask the Muscovite infidel, their bitter and hereditary foe, was inadmissible; they’d fairly depart the occasion to Windfall.” Not so judged the Sultan, who had seen no motive to alter his thoughts. The battle of Konia was his final east, and had been misplaced; he had no military left, and the individuals wouldn’t combat in his trigger; while Ibrahim, on the head of his victorious troops, had superior to inside a fortnight’s march of the capital, and menaced the throne.

The order for aid from Russia had been despatched by the Envoy, below discretionary authority from his Court docket, and by no means been recalled; a circumstance of which just a few Europeans had been conscious, moreover the events to the association. Numerous rumours on the topic had been afloat, and the general public in anxious suspense, when all doubt was ended by the intelligence that the Russian fleet had appeared in sight. Listening to the information, numbers of individuals crowded the home windows of the homes which commanded a view of the passage from the Black Sea, whence they may discern one or two giant ships already superior inside the channel, adopted by a number of others, looming within the distance. The blue cross in a white area quickly grew to become seen, salutes had been interchanged with the Turkish batteries, and, in one other hour, a Russian squadron of seven line-of-battle ships was anchored at Buyukdere.

 

The money-changer by a pair of scales

Thus the priest is distinguished even past the grave by the mitre that surmounts his title; the diamond-merchant by a bunch of ornaments; the money-changer by a pair of scales; the florist by a knot of movement’ers: in addition to many extra ignoble hieroglyphics, such because the razor and basin of the barber, the shears of the tailor, and so forth ; and when the calling is one which can have been adopted by both intercourse, a e-book, positioned instantly above the suitable emblem, distinguishes tbe grave of the person.

Neither is this all; for the victims of a violent loss of life have additionally their distinctive mark; and multiple tomb on this extraordinary burial-place presents the impolite illustration of a headless trunk, from whose severed throat the gushing blood is spirting upwards like a fountain, whereas tbe head itself is pillowed on the clasped palms !

Most of the extra historical of the tombs are very richly and intricately wrought; and the shapes of a number of of those sarcophagi are eminently classical; however almost all the trendy ones are mere rectangular slabs, mounted in some circumstances upon round pedestals three or 4 inches in peak, and completely easy in design. The scenario of the Armenian burial-place is great; and it’s typically occupied by teams of individuals of that nation, seated upon the grave-stones, beneath the cool shadows of the acacia-trees, speaking and smoking, as if no image of the useless have been close to.

Loss of life has no gloom for the philosophical Orientals !

THE GUZ-COULI, OR MAIDEN’S TOWER

A fairy-fortress, girdled by the ocean, Rock-seated, and alone; whose single tower Was mirrored within the waves, and from whose heights The attention glanced spherical on two truthful cities, unfold Alongside nonetheless fairer shores.

THE common aud poetical traditions hooked up to this sea-girdled edifice have already been given, and its peculiar place lias rendered it a really placing object in a number of of the sketches of Mr. Bartlett; it’s, certainly, so basically one of many “ Beauties of the Bosphorus,” that it couldn’t fail to create its personal curiosity, even have been it with out its peculiar document; however such is much from being the case. The massaldjhes love to inform the story of the truthful and high-born woman, who died, Cleopatra-like, from the chew of an adder, inside its partitions; the poets like to sing the adventures of the Persiau Prince who delivered the imprisoned magnificence on an evening of storm, when there was no tell-tale moon to disclose the enterprise to jealous guards and watchful eunuchs; and when the wild waves of the Propontis have been lashing themselves to foam towards the rocky shores of Asia, whereas the hoarse gusts which swept down from the Black Sea, driving tlie present of the Bosphorus madly earlier than them, swelled the midnight diapason, and was sweeter than the voice of the bulbul of Nishapor within the ears of the lovers.

 

The ministers of death

The one assertion is, nevertheless, most likely as apocryphal as the opposite; for the sluggish waters of the port will need to have been assuredly much less inviting to the ministers of dying than the hurried present of Marmora, the place, scarcely an arrow’s flight from the Seraglio partitions, it rushes in direction of the gulph of Nicodentia. Be that as it could, nevertheless, the partitions of the Serai, terminating a brief area past this gate, the place the court docket of Yeni Djami descends to the harbour, take an upward path, and are flanked at their excessive level as they traverse town, by a gaily-gilded kiosque, poised, as if by magic, upon one of many buttresses, and completely surrounded bv lattice-work, which, wliile it conceals the inside of the constructing, permits its tenants to command each object beneath them.

Straight reverse to this glittering pavilion, known as the Kiosque of Justice, is located tire magnificent portal which supplies its title to the Turkish governmentthe “ Chic Porte” a stately and imposing gate of entrance to the good public workplaces of the Empire.

This noble and finely-proportioned construction, maybe one of the vital putting on the planet, is flanked by two deep niches, containing slabs of marble, whereon are uncovered the heads of such criminals beneath the rank of Pashas, or enemies taken in battle or captured by stratagem, as it’s the pleasure of the monarch to disclose to the eyes of the folks ; and the gilded kiosque, to which allusion has been made, owes its appellation to the circumstance, that it’s from thence that the Sultan ascertains the impact of the exhibition upon the populace, and the truth that his orders have been executed by the correct functionaries.

The Serai Bournou occupies

The principal and highest entrance to the Serai Bournou occupies one facet of a sq., of which the Mosque of St. Sophia encloses a second ; whereas the rest is shaped by traces of mean-looking homes and coffee-shops. A really stunning fountain, now quick falling to decay, stands within the centre of the area; whence the water gushes forth in an ample quantity, dancing and glittering within the sun-light.

It’s a advantageous specimen of the traditional Moorish structure, and is surmounted by 5 domes one occupying the centre of the pile, and richly perforated with clear chiselling; whereas 4 minor lateral cupolas type the extremities of the roof, which is terminated by a deep overhanging cornice, extremely ornamented with a heavy cornice and a sequence of minute arabesques. Two broad and steep steps of white marble result in the constructing, which is, except for the Kilidge Ali Pasha Djiamini at Tophamie, the best construction of the type within the capital; and a gaggle of sentinels and eunuchs loitering beneath the lofty portal of the Seraglio gate, give a final contact of orientalism to the image.

Treasure in gold

It’s mentioned that the quantity of treasure in gold, silver, jewels, and wealthy stuffs, thus collected collectively, is immense; and that most of the chests have occupied their place within the gallery for a century. However this reality doesn’t function towards their safety—no seal is ever pressured at Suleimanie; and this nice nationwide financial institution, for such it actually is, stays untouched and sacred all through each in style convulsion, and each gut change. Right here the Turkish authorities workout routines no despotism, exacts no avaniah,* levies no tax; and amid all its reverses, and all its requirements, preserves an admirable integrity which is much less usually identified than it deserves to be.

THE TORT OF CONSTANTINOPLE. The place’er we gaze, round, above, beneath, What rainbow-tints, what magic charms are discovered! Rock, river, forest, mountain all abound, And bluest skies that harmonize the entire.”

There is no such thing as a higher level whence to obtaiu a view of the Port of Constantinople than from the good cemetery of the “ Infidel Hill” of Pera. The harbour lies at your ft, crowded with delivery, moored in treble strains alongside the shore, and filling each little creek and bay.

The minaretted metropolis cresting the alternative top like a diadem, stretches alongside in all of the splendour of its mosques and palaces; terminated in a single course bv the Eski-Serai, glittering amongst its cypresses and plane-trees, and enclosed throughout the picturesque partitions, which arc washed by the blue waves of the Bosphorus and the Propontis, to which the hoary timber that overhang them pay again their tribute of shade and freshness ; and on the opposite, by the historic suburb of Eyoub; whereas, within the distance, the brilliant sea of Marmora dances within the gentle, bearing a thousand gleaming sails upon its bosom, and its scattered islands heave up their improbable define like marine monsters; the Thracian Olympus, and the mountain- chain of which it’s the monarch, kind the frame-work of the image ; whereas Scutari closes in upon the attention, sweeping gracefully alongside the sting of the Propontis, till it grows into majesty because it nears the Bosphorus, and flings over the waves of “ the ocean-stream,” the stately shadow of Burlgurlhu Daghi.

Shore throughout the harbour

Innumerable caiques dart from shore to shore throughout the harbour, freighted with veiled ladies, and males of many lands; and the shrill warning cry of the boatmen as they shoot alongside, reducing by means of the water like wihl-birds, frequently passing and repassing, and but by no means coining in collision the crowds of sca-l’ow 1 sporting among the many delivery, and diving below the oars of each boat the sunshine bridge, flung like a fairy-wand throughout the port all conspire to render the Golden Horn one of the crucial picturesque scenes on the planet; whereas above the brilliant panorama and the glittering sea, spreads a sky of such intense and vivid blue, as invests each object with a tint and a distinctness from which it derives a brand new and a peculiar magnificence.

 

The Moorish fountain

ISTKNIA

“in famed Attica Mich pretty dales

Are not often seen; nor can truthful Tempe boast A allure they know not; cherished Parnassus fails,

Although traditional floor and consecrated mo>t,

To match some spots that lurk inside this reducing coast.”

The attractive little village of Istenia, known as by the Greeks Mirgheun, and principally inhabited by that nation, is located in one of many prettiest spots on the Bosphorus ; though the alternative shore is rocky, sterile, and wonderfully flung collectively ; the sting of the water on the base of the dusky chain of hills, being, nevertheless, fringed with homes, and homosexual with timber.

The Moorish fountain

The Moorish fountain, which varieties the topic of the accompanying sketch, is of a particularly swish character, and constructed of a marble whose whiteness is sort of dazzling. It occupies the termination of the principle avenue of the village, the place it touches upon the channel; and is completely overshadowed by the far- stretching branches of a wonderful maple-tree, which after spreading its homosexual inexperienced cover over the dome and richly-wrought roof of the fountain, lastly mingles its leafy honours with these of two different timber of the identical description, beneath whose shelter the cool wood terraces of a few coflee-kiosques have been erected.

Crowds of caiques dance on the heaving present inside twenty paces of the fountain; the clear nets of the fishermen cling in festoons from the

branches; veiled girls come and go together with their earthen vessels in quest of the pure water of the village spring; the homosexual sounds of the zcbec ring out from the coffce-kiosqnes; the channel-wind, because it sweeps alongside the ripple, awakens the mysterious music of the leaves which overhang it; the white sails of the passing vessels glimmer within the sun-light—the fruit-merchants heap up their luscious shops in tempting profusion, able to be conveyed in boats to the markets of the town—and the entire scene is so cool, so shady, and so nonetheless, that, it isn’t great that the nature-loving Orientals ought to have chosen it as a village web site, even in a land abounding with nice glens, and nooks teeming with loveliness.

The broad avenue, opening from the shore, climbs the hill behind it; its irregularly gabled and many-coloured homes lastly terminating in vineyards and olive-groves ; whereas a mountain-stream, feeding the wheels of a mill, goes dancing within the gentle, now absolutely seen, and now buried beneath tire dense vegetation upon its banks, till it throws itself into the Bosphorus. A really fairly, well-kept, and moderately in depth backyard, belonging to Aclimct Pasha, occupies a portion of the peak behind the village; and is succeeded by a small forest, the place teams of Turkish and Greek women are continuously to be seen in the course of the summer season months, having fun with the dolce far niente so congenial t6 the local weather; forming gipsy-parties underneath the timber, or sauntering slowly alongside beneath the dense shadows of the boughs, gathering the gorgeous wild-flowers which abound in that nice place.

 

Mosque of the Sultan Ahmet

These circumstances throw a halo across the mosque of the Sultan Achmet which vastly enhances its precise magnificence; and the traveller loiters willingly amid its dim magnificence, calling up visions of the previous which stamp an extraneous worth upon each element of the edifice.

A curious and useful assortment of vintage vases, of probably the most swish designs and exquisite workmanship, a lot of them inlaid with gems and mom of pearl, are suspended all through the mosque from transverse bars of iron ; along with the eggs of ostriches, emblems of dependence on Windfall ; ears of corn, tbc symbols of a lot; and related typical decorations.

However the glory of Sultan Achmet, as an edifice, is its inside, or cloistered courtroom, surrounded by swish Saracenic columns, whose capitals resemble clusters of stalactites, forming the bottom of arches of extraordinary magnificence. Within the centre of the courtroom, which is paved all through with wealthy marble, a stately fountain, surmounted by a good-looking cupola, offers a facet of refreshing coolness to the enclosure. On the left hand of the gate of entrance is located a balcony, upon which opens one of many home windows of the mosque, whence all firmans of public curiosity are learn aloud to the individuals; and, taken altogether, whether or not as a public constructing, as a spiritual monument, or as the positioning of stirring incident, there isn’t any temple in Stamboul extra worthy of consideration than the Imperial Mosque of Sultan Achmet.

THE COLUMN OF MARCIAN

There Rome’s proud eagle, carved in residing stone, Is lifted to the skies, and kinds the bottom Of a nonetheless prouder statue, now unknown. Which, when first raised to its imperial place, Had thought to make futurity its personal.

The Column of Marcian stands close to the gate of Adrianople, within the backyard of a Turkish home; and is a advantageous stay of Roman splendour. The pedestal of the pillar is ornamented with wreaths of oak leaves ; the shaft is eighty ft in peak; and on the richly carved Corinthian capital rests a block of marble supporting a second capital, fashioned by 4 gigantic eagles, sustaining npon their prolonged wings the bottom of a statue now fully destroyed.

The identify of the column would infer that the lacking effigy was that of the Emperor Marcian; however most of the Greeks cling to the custom that it was erected in honour of one of many heathen divinities, by whose statue it was surmounted : and so they ascribe it indifferently to Apollo, Mercury, and Mars. By the Turks it’s known as Kestacki, and valued solely as a stately characteristic within the panorama; though the worthy Moslem in whose backyard it stands, is evidently a lot gratified by the admiration it elicits from strangers. A venerable olive- tree, whose impolite and knotted trunk is in a state of picturesque decay, leans towards the slender shaft; flowers bloom at. its base ; a cluster of darkish cypresses, trying, regardless of tlicir nice peak, like mere pigmies beside this lofty monument of human artwork, are in its rapid neighborhood; whereas a small mosque, and a modest mausoleum, peep out. within the distance from among the many leafy timber of the enclosure.

 

The city of Constantinople

On one facet, town of Constantinople is unfold out beneath him like a map; and he gazes on its thousand domes, and its 5 thousand minarets; its majestic maples dwindled into bushes; and its darkish cypresses seeming like finger posts indicating the scattered resting-places of the lifeless upon its busy khans, its crowded Teharchi, its luxurious palaces, and its gloomy prisons. The hand and thoughts of man arc seen all through, and human delight swells excessive throughout the contemplation of human energy; however let the gazer transfer just a few paces onward solely to the following window and he will likely be immediately rebuked. There stretches away the ocean of Marmora the sunny Propontis with its rocky islets, and its glittering waves, dancing beneath the intense blue sky; Mount Olympus, stately with its crown of snow and its mantle of vapour, perceptible on the verge of the horizon ; and the wonderful Bosphorus, winding between its wealthy and peopled shores, guiding his imaginative and prescient onward to the Sea of Storms.

One other transfer, and the Golden Horn is earlier than him ; a thousand barks safely moored inside its land-locked limits, pouring forth the riches of different lands, or lading with the treasures of this; the flag of many countries flying proudly at their masts, and the voices of many lands swelling upon the breeze. “When bis eye is sated, and his thoughts is happy with this spirit-stirring scene, just a few toes onward he’ll discover a spot whence he could repose his excited imaginative and prescient on the darkish and arid rocks which enclose the beautiful “ Valley of the Candy Waters ;” essentially the most scrumptious spot of earth that ever was cinctured by a mountain-girdle ; and lose himself in fancy amid its woods and waters, the golden-latticed chambers of its summer time palace, and the veiled beauties who inhabit them.

Majestic and various scenes

Such is a faint define of the majestic and various scenes to be loved on the expense of the fatigue attendant on mounting the 300 and thirty steps of the Yanguen Kiosque a bodily exertion which is forgotten on the first look from its dizzy peak upon the fairy wonders of the encompassing objects; the busy respiration metropolis the candy nonetheless valley the ocean channel, linking two quarters of the globe as with a silver string and the extensive sea, the unfathomable, trackless, mysterious sea, bounding the imaginative and prescient, the place it blends in a single deep, wealthy, purple tint, with the far horizon.

 

The Seven Towers

The following focal point is the fortress often called that of the Seven Towers. What a spell is within the very title, to all those that are both eager about, or conversant with, Jap historical past ! What volumes of human energy and of human struggling does it not contain! Captives have sickened with despair—ambassadors have sighed at delay inside these partitions of darkness and of crime— monarehs have made a jest of international vengeance, and nobles have felt the load of native displeasure!

This in depth fortress

This in depth fortress initially consisted, as its title implies, of seven principal towers, dominating a collection of dungeons, courts, and guard-rooms, whose secrets and techniques seldom transpired past the partitions. A powerful garrison, lofty outworks, and jealously-barred cells, insured the security (in as far as escape was involved) of the captives whom state coverage or personal hate consigned to this formidable jail.

Hecatombs of heads, sacrificed to at least one or the opposite of those impulses, gave their title to a small enclosure now referred to as the “ Place of Heads,” the place they’re stated to have been piled upon one another till the mound was of adequate peak to allow the executioners to command from its summit a large view of tlie sun-lighted Propontis; whereas a darkish vault is proven, upon whose brink the stranger stands with quailing coronary heart, and appears down upon the “ Effectively of Blood,” whose ensanguined stream as soon as overflowed its margin, and ran reeking below the broad daylight over the marble pavement of the courtroom past, to pollute the pure waters of the sea of Marmara. Stone tunnels, into which the writhing wretches who had been doomed to this cruel loss of life had been pressured by the sharp scimitars and handjars  of their jailors, and there left to run out of famine; and oubliettes, whose gnawing jaws opened to obtain their victims solely to ship them again mutilated and bleeding to the depths of the ocean-grave, the place their sufferings had been destined to finish for ever, arc to be seen on all sides; whereas the promenades supplied for the prisoners throughout the guarded precincts are overshadowed by the funereal cypress, as if brisker and brighter foliage would there have been a mockery.

The least outstanding object

Not the least outstanding object identified to the stranger throughout the partitions of the Seven Towers is a dry properly, celebrated as that into which Mustapha III., on some misunderstanding between the courtroom’s of the Sultan and the Czarina Catherine, very unceremoniously prompted her consultant, the Depend Obrescoff, to be lowered, and left throughout a number of days, ere he entered upon his extra professional interval of a captivity which endured three weary years; whereas racks, and wheels, and different sophisticated devices of torture, are scattered via the fortress, as if to show the ingenuity of mankind in innovations of ache and horror!